The 2018 Nobel Prize were announced recently in 5 different fields viz. Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, Peace, and Economic Sciences. This is for the first time that no Literature Prize was given in 70 years because of a #MeToo scandal. We have compiled all the winners under one complete table that will make you remember all the winners in a go.
Brief History of the Nobel Prize-
On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace – the Nobel Prizes. The Nobel Prize distribution was first done on 1901. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank) established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
The complete list of Winners of Nobel Prize 2018-
|1.||Physiology or Medicine||James P Allison (USA) and Tasaku Honjo (Japan)||“for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”|
|2.||Physics||Arthur Ashkin (USA), Gerard Mourou (France)|
and Donna Strickland (Canada)
|“for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics”|
|3.||Chemistry||(a) one half to Frances H. Arnold (USA)|
(b) other half jointly to George P. Smith (USA) and Sir Gregory P. Winter (UK)
|(a) “for the directed evolution of enzymes”|
(b) “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies”
|4.||Peace||Denis Mukwege (Congo) and Nadia Murad (Iraq)||“for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”|
|5.||Economic Sciences||(a) William D. Nordhaus (USA)|
(b) Paul M. Romer (USA)
|(a) “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis”|
(b) “for integrating technological innovations into
long-run macroeconomic analysis.”
Here are some Static and Interesting Facts about the Nobel Prize (Category Wise):
The Nobel Prize in Physics-
- The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
- 111 Nobel Prizes in Physics have been awarded between 1901-2017.
- 2 women have been awarded the Physics Prize so far.
- 25 years was the age of the youngest Physics Laureate ever, Lawrence Bragg,when he was awarded the 1915 Physics Prize together with his father.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry-
- The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
- 109 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry have been awarded between 1901 and 2017.
- 4 women have been awarded the Chemistry Prize so far.
- 1 person, Frederick Sanger, has been awarded the Chemistry Prize twice, in 1958 and in 1980.
- 35 years was the age of the youngest Chemistry Laureate ever, Frédéric Joliot, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1935.
- 85 years was the age of the oldest Chemistry Laureate, John B. Fenn, when he was awarded the Chemistry Prize in 2002.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine-
- The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
- 108 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded between 1901 and 2017.
- 12 women have been awarded the Medicine Prize so far.
- 32 years was the age of the youngest Medicine Laureate ever, Frederick G. Banting, who was awarded the 1923 Medicine Prize for the discovery of insulin.
- 87 years was the age of the oldest Medicine Laureate ever,Peyton Rous, when he was awarded the Medicine Prize in 1966 for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses.
The Nobel Prize in Literature-
- The Nobel Prize in Literature is awarded by the Swedish Academy, Stockholm, Sweden.
- 110 Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded 1901-2017.
- 14 womenhave been awarded the Literature Prize so far.
- 41 years was the age of the youngest Literature Laureate ever, Rudyard Kipling, best known for The Jungle Book.
- 88 years was the age of the oldest Literature Laureate ever, Doris Lessing,when she was awarded the Prize in 2007.
The Nobel Peace Prize-
- The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded by a committee of five persons who are chosen by the Norwegian Storting (Parliament of Norway).
- 98 Nobel Peace Prizes have been awarded 1901-2017.
- 16 women have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize so far.
- 1 Peace Prize Laureate,Le Duc Tho, has declined the Nobel Peace Prize.
- Malala Yousafzai (17)is the youngest to win Nobel Peace Prize in 2014.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel-
- The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
- 49 Prizes in Economic Sciences have been awarded since 1969.
- 1 woman has been awarded the Prize in Economic Sciences so far, Elinor Ostrom, in 2009.
- 51 years was the age of the youngest Laureate in Economic Sciences ever, Kenneth J. Arrow, who was awarded in 1972.
- 90 years was Leonid Hurwiczwhen he was awarded the Prize – the oldest Laureate in Economic Sciences ever.
Winners of 2017 Nobel Prize in respective fields are as follows-
- Jeffrey C. Hall (USA), Michael Rosbash (USA) and Michael W. Young (USA): Physiology or Medicine.
- Rainer Weiss (Germany), Barry C. Barish (USA) and Kip S. Thorne (USA):
- Jacques Dubochet (Switzerland), Joachim Frank (Germany) and Richard Henderson (Scotland):
- Kazuo Ishiguro (Japan):
- International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) (founded in Australia):
- Richard H. Thaler (USA):Economic Sciences.